Critical Reflections on the Notion of Global Citizenship Education. A dialogue with Carlos Alberto Torres in relation to higher education in the United States


  • Carlos Alberto Torres University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • Emiliano Bosio UCL - Institute of Education (UK); Yokohama City University



Globalization, Global citizenship education, Higher education, Comparative education, Curriculum


The promotion of global citizenship has become one of the objectives of education systems in various parts of the world. This highlighted the widening of the idea of citizenship from the national to the global sphere, due to the effects produced by globalization. If the emergence of global elements within the traditional concept of education seems to be a widely acquired fact, the conceptualization of the term «global citizenship education» remains more problematic. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect and dialogue in order to limit from the pedagogical point of view those elements of educational experience that can be understood within education for global citizenship in the educational context. This paper introduces a conversation with Carlos Alberto Torres on the subject of educating for global citizenship, in relation to the situation of university research, teaching and learning in the United States. Torres chairs the UNESCO chair for global citizenship education at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and is the founder and director of the Paulo Freire Institute of São Paulo, Buenos Aires and UCLA. The dialogue addresses the theoretical and practical perspectives related to global citizenship, with an analysis aimed in particular at focusing on the connection between culture and power, as well as the interrelations between the economic, political and cultural spheres in the modern university. The aim is to offer a portrait - as detailed and updated as possible - of education for global citizenship seen as a means of achieving social justice.


Andreotti, V. (2006). Soft versus critical global citizenship education. Policy & Practice. A Development Education Review, 3, 83-98.

Andreotti, V. (2011). Actionable postcolonial theory in education. New York, NY: Palgrave.

Banks, J. A., Suárez-Orozco, M., & Ben-Peretz, M. (Eds.) (2016). Global migration, diversity, and civic education: Improving policy and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Bosio, E. (2017a). Educating for Global Citizenship and Fostering a Nonkilling Attitude. In J. Evans Pim, & S. Herrero Rico (Eds.), Nonkilling Education (pp. 59-70). Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling.

Bosio, E. (2017b). How do we create transformative global citizens? University World News, December 1. Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Bosio, E. (2019). The need for a values-based university curriculum. University World News, September 28. Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Bosio, E. (2020). Towards an Ethical Global Citizenship Education Curriculum Framework in the Modern University. In D. Bourn (Ed.), Bloomsbury Handbook for Global Education and Learning (pp. 187-206). London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Bosio, E., & Gaudelli, W. (2018). Dr. William Gaudelli Global Citizenship Education. Interview Series Emiliano Bosio [Video file]. Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Bosio, E., Ibe A., Matsui B., & Rothman, J. R. (2018). GILE SIG Forum: Educating for Global Citizenship, in A. B. Gallagher (Ed.), The 2017 PanSIG Journal: Expand Your Interest (pp. 222-231). Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Bosio, E., & Joffee, M. (2018). Dr. Monte Joffee Global Citizenship Education – Interview Series Emiliano Bosio [Video file]. Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Bosio, E., & Schattle, H. (2017). Dr. Hans Schattle Global Citizenship Education – Interview Series Emiliano Bosio [Video file]. Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Bosio, E., & Torres, C. A. (2018). Dr. Carlos Alberto Torres Global Citizenship Education – Interview Series with Emiliano Bosio [Video file]. Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Bosio, E., & Torres, C. A. (2019). Global citizenship education: An educational theory of the common good? A conversation with Carlos Alberto Torres. Policy Futures in Education, 17(6), 745-760.

Bourn, D. (2018). Understanding Global Skills for 21st Century Professions. New York, NY: Palgrave.

Burbules, N. C., & Torres, C. A. (2013). Globalization and education: Critical perspectives. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Crutzen, P. J. (2005). Benvenuti nell’Antropocene! Milano: Mondadori.

Dill, J.S. (2012). The moral education of global citizens. Society, 49, 541-546.

Freire, P. (2018). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Gaudelli, W. (2016). Global citizenship education: Everyday transcendence. New York, NY: Routledge.

Giroux, H. A. (2007). Border crossings: Cultural workers and the politics of education. New York-London: Routledge.

Goulah, J., & Ito, T. (2012). Daisaku Ikeda’s curriculum of Soka education: Creating value through dialogue, global citizenship, and “human education” in the mentor–disciple relationship. Curriculum Inquiry, 42(1), 56-79.

MacFarquhar, R. (1966). The Hundred Flowers Campaign and the Chinese Intellectuals. New York, NY: Praeger.

Makiguchi, T. (2000). L’educazione creativa. Firenze: La Nuova Italia.

Oxley, L., & Morris, P. (2013). Global citizenship: A typology for distinguishing its multiple conceptions. British Journal of Educational Studies, 61(3), 301-325.

Premoli, S. (2008). Pedagogie per un mondo globale. Culture, panorami dell’educazione, prospettive. Torino: EGA.

Rhoads, R. A., & Szelényi, K. (2009). Globally engaged universities and the changing context of academic citizenship. Education and Society, 27(2), 5-26.

Rhoads, R. A., & Szelényi, K. (2011). Global citizenship and the university: Advancing social life and relations in an interdependent world. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.

Schattle, H. (2008). The practices of global citizenship. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Sharma, N. (2018). Value-Creating Global Citizenship Education: Engaging Gandhi, Makiguchi, and Ikeda as Examples. NewYork, NY: Palgrave.

Shultz, L. (2007). Educating for global citizenship: Conflicting agendas and understandings. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53(3), 248-258.

Sund, L., & Pashby, K. (2018). ‘Is It That We Do Not Want Them to Have Washing Machines?’: Ethical Global Issues Pedagogy in Swedish Classrooms. Sustainability, 10(10), 3552.

Surian, A. (2009). Quando la cittadinanza interroga i curricula. In L. Luatti (Ed.), Educare alla cittadinanza attiva. Luoghi, metodi, discipline (pp. 189-197). Roma: Carocci.

Tarozzi, M. (2015a). Dall'intercultura alla giustizia sociale. Per un progetto pedagogico e politico di cittadinanza globale. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Tarozzi, M. (2015b). Intercultura e educazione alla cittadinanza globale. Civitas educationis. Education, Politics, and Culture, 4(2), 67-83.

Tarozzi, M., & Torres, C. A. (2016). Global citizenship education and the crises of multiculturalism: Comparative perspectives. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Torres, C. A. (2008). Education and neoliberal globalization. London, UK: Routledge.

Torres, C. A. (2017). Theoretical and empirical foundations of critical global citizenship education. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Torres, C. A., & Bosio. E. (2020). Global Citizenship Education at the crossroads: globalization, global commons, common good and critical consciousness. Prospects. Comparative Journal of Curriculum, Learning, and Assessment.

UNESCO (2014). Global citizenship education: Preparing learners for the challenges of the 21st century. Consultato il 21 marzo 2020:

Widdows, H. (2014). Global Ethics: An Introduction. London, UK: Routledge.



How to Cite

Torres, C. A., & Bosio, E. (2020). Critical Reflections on the Notion of Global Citizenship Education. A dialogue with Carlos Alberto Torres in relation to higher education in the United States. Encyclopaideia, 24(56), 107–117.