The adaptation of foreign minors between risk and protective factors
Keywords:adaptation, systematic review, unaccompanied foreign minors, risk and protection factors, life project
The frame of risk and protection factors in relation to the social and educational adaptation of unaccompanied foreign minors is very complex. This qualitative Systematic Review aims to analyze the most recent scientific research on psychological, educational and social variables that can contribute to adaptation, in order to outline the factors on which to work in order to structure intervention strategies as well as to structure life projects in line with the evidence. The literature search conducted identified 11 empirical studies. The results highlighted specific risk and protection factors, contextual (e.g. role of peers, teachers and parents) and individual (e.g. mental health, coping strategies, resilience) related to the adaptation of unaccompanied foreign minors. In addition to discussing the practical implications of the studies in line with development models, the methodological limitations found in the studies are also highlighted and future perspectives indicated.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1978). The Bowlby-Ainsworth attachment theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(03), 436–438. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00075828
Arbabi, K., Yeh, C. J., Mahmud, Z., & Salleh, A. (2017). From monocultural to multicultural: Adaptation of Iranian immigrant adolescents in Malaysia. Journal of Adolescent Research, 32(3), 371-402. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1177/0743558416630811
Bandura, A. (1998). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychology and Health, 13(4), 623-649. https://doi.org/10.1080/0887044980840742
Bandura, A. (1999a). Social cognitive theory of personality. In A. Lawrence Pervin & P.J Oliver (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (pp. 154-96). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Bandura, A. (1999b). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Asian journal of social psychology, 2(1), 21-41. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1111/1467-839X.00024
Bean, T., Derluyn, I., Eurelings-Bontekoe, E., Broekaert, E., & Spinhoven, P. (2007). Comparing psychological distress, traumatic stress reactions, and experiences of unaccompanied refugee minors with experiences of adolescents accompanied by parents. The Journal of Nervous and Mental disease, 195(4), 288-297. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd.0000243751.49499.93.
Berry, J. W., & Sam, D. L. (1997). Acculturation and adaptation. In J.W. Berry,
M.H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, 3: Social behaviour and applications (2nd edn.; pp. 291–326). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon..
Betancourt, T. S., Frounfelker, R., Mishra, T., Hussein, A., & Falzarano, R. (2015). Addressing health disparities in the mental health of refugee children and adolescents through community-based participatory research: a study in 2 communities. American Journal of Public Health, 105(S3), S475-S482. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302504
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979a). The ecology of human development. USA: Harvard University press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979b). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34(10), 844-850. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.844
Cicchetti, D. (2008). A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on research in developmental psychopathology. In T. P. Beauchaine, & S. P. Hinshaw, (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 27–57). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Olsen, K. (1990). The Developmental Psychopathology of Child Maltreatment. In: M. Lewis & S.M. Miller (Eds) Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology. (pp. 261-279). Boston, MA: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-7142-1_21
Cohen, M., & Eid, J. (2007). The effect of constant threat of terror on Israeli Jewish and Arab adolescents. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 20(1), 47-60. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1080/10615800601167546
Drammeh, L. (2010). Progetti di vita per minori stranieri non accompagnati. Manuale per gli operatori sociali attivi sul territorio. Strasburgo: Collana Migration, Edizioni del Consiglio d’Europa.
Fazel, M., Reed, R. V., Panter-Brick, C., & Stein, A. (2012). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: Risk and protective factors. Lancet, 379(9812), 266-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60051-2.
Garmezy, N. (1993). Children in poverty: Resilience despite risk. Psychiatry, 56(1), 127-136. https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1993.11024627
Grotberg, E. H. (1997). The International Resilience Project. Presented at the International Council of Psychologists conference, Graz, Austria. Retrieved March 19, 2004, from http://resilnet.uiuc.edu/library/groy98a.html
Helson, H. (1959). Adaptation Level Theory. In S. Koch (Eds), Psychology: A Study of a Science, vol. I (pp. 565-621). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Hovey, J. D. (2000). Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation among central American immigrants. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 30(2), 125-139.
Huemer, J., Karnik, N., Voelkl-Kernstock, S., Granditsch, E., Plattner, B., Friedrich, M., & Steiner, H. (2011). Psychopathology in African unaccompanied refugee minors in Austria. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(3), 307-319. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1007/s10578-011-0219-4
Huemer, J., Völkl-Kernstock, S., Karnik, N., Denny, K. G., Granditsch, E., Mitterer, M., et al. (2013). Personality and psychopathology in African unaccompanied refugee minors: Repression, resilience and vulnerability. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 44(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0308-z
Kirova, A. (2010). Children's representations of cultural scripts in play: Facilitating transition from home to preschool in an intercultural early learning program for refugee children. Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, 4(2), 74-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/15595691003635765
Lee, R. M. (2005). Resilience against Discrimination: Ethnic identity and other-group orientation as protective factors for Korean Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 36-44. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.124
Lim, S. H., & Han, S. S. (2016). A predictive model on north Korean refugees' adaptation to south Korean society: Resilience in response to psychological trauma. Asian Nursing Research, 10(2), 164-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2016.04.003
Luster, T., Qin, D., Bates, L., Rana, M., & Lee, J. A. (2010). Successful adaptation among Sudanese unaccompanied minors: Perspectives of youth and foster parents. Childhood, 17(2), 197-211. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0907568210365664
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS med, 6(7), e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097
Muscarà, M., Pace, U., Passanisi, A., D’Urso, G., & Zappulla, C. (2018). The transition from middle school to high school: the mediating role of perceived peer support in the relationship between family functioning and school satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(8), 2690-2698. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1007/s10826-018-1098-0
Ozer, E. J., & McDonald, K. L. (2006). Exposure to violence and mental health among Chinese American urban adolescents. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 39(1), 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.09.015
Pagani, C., & Robustelli F. (2005). Marek a scuola. Gli insegnanti e l’inserimento degli alunni stranieri nella scuola italiana. Milano, MI: Franco Angeli.
Phelps, E., Zimmerman, S., Warren, A. E. A., Jeličić, H., von Eye, A., & Lerner, R. M. (2009). The structure and developmental course of positive youth development (PYD) in early adolescence: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(5), 571-584. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/j.appdev.2009.06.003
Phinney, J. S., Lochner, B. T., & Murphy, R. (1990). Ethnic identity development and psychological adjustment in adolescence. In A. R. Stiffman & L. E. Davis (Eds.), Ethnic issues in adolescent mental health (p. 53–72). Sage Publications, Inc.
Roeser, R., Eccles, J.S., & Sameroff, A. J. (2000). School as a context of early adolescents’ academic and social-emotional development: A summary of research findings. The Elementary School Journal, 100, 443–471. https://doi.org/10.1086/499650
Roxas, K., & Roy, L. (2012). “That’s how we roll”: A case study of a recently arrived refugee student in an urban high school. The Urban Review, 44(4), 468-486. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-012-0203-8
Rutter,M., & Garmezy, N. (1983). Developmental psychopathology. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 775–911). New York: Wiley.
Sameroff, A. J., & Mackenzie, M. J. (2003). Research strategies for capturing transactional models of development: The limits of the possible. Development and Psychopathology, 15(3), 613-640. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579403000312
Stern, D. N. (1989). The representations of relational patterns: Developmental considerations. In A. J. Sameroff, & R. N. Emde, (Eds.), Relationship disturbances in early childhood: A developmental approach (pp. 52–69). New York, NY: Basic.
Theron, L., Liebenberg, L., & Ungar, M. (2015). Youth resilience and culture. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-94-017-9415-2
Tummala-Narra, P., Deshpande, A., & Kaur, J. (2016). South Asian adolescents’ experiences of acculturative stress and coping. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 86(2), 194-211. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/ort0000147
Tunstall, P., & Gsipps, C. (1996). Teacher feedback to young children in formative assessment: A typology. British educational research journal, 22(4), 389-404. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192960220402
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Tynes, B. M., Toomey, R. B., Williams, D. R., & Mitchell, K. J. (2015). Latino adolescents’ perceived discrimination in online and offline settings: An examination of cultural risk and protective factors. Developmental Psychology, 51(1), 87-100. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0038432
Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across cultures. The British Journal of Social Work, 38(2), 218-235. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1093/bjsw/bcl343
Ungar, M. (2018). Systemic resilience: principles and processes for a science of change in contexts of adversity. Ecology and Society, 23(4). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10385-230434.
Vazsonyi, A. T., Mikuška, J., & Gaššová, Z. (2017). Revisiting the immigrant paradox: Suicidal ideations and suicide attempts among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 59, 67-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.05.008
Winnicott, D. W. (1953). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena—a study of the first not-me possession. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 34, 89-97.
Yee Mikami, A., Gregory, A., Allen, J. P., Pianta, R. C., & Lun, J. (2011). Effects of a teacher professional development intervention on peer relationships in secondary classrooms. School Psychology Review, 40(3), 36.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Marinella Muscarà, Giulio D'Urso, Alessia Passanisi, Ugo Pace
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.