Phenomenography in the Student Learning Perspective: A Review of Studies in Academic Contexts

Massimiliano Barattucci, Enrico Bocciolesi

Abstract


Academic institutions have gradually structured their policies on the basis of their students’ perceptions, satisfaction and needs. This paper explores the use of phenomenography in the Student Learning Perspective, which claims that students’ perceptions of the learning environment, in light of their motivations and expectations, determine how situational factors influence approaches to learning and learning outcomes. Firstly, the article investigates the context of development of this line of research and the studies concerning the effect of environmental, organizational and contextual factors on students’ perceptions and learning; secondly, it describes the phenomenographic research methodology and the theoretical models of learning process developed. Finally, the paper reviews the studies on study approach and contextual variables, and discusses the applicability of SLP models to different academic systems and practical applications concerning teaching quality, assessment tools and students’ perceptions of the quality of the learning environment.

Keywords


Phenomenography; Students’ Perceptions; Higher Education; Learning Environment; Study Approach

Full Text:

PDF (English)

References


Åkerlind, G. (2008). A phenomenographic approach to developing academics’ understanding of the nature of teaching and learning. Teaching in Higher Education, 13(6), 633–644.

Åkerlind, G. (2005). Variation and commonality in phenomenographic research methods. Higher Education Research and Development, 24, 321–334.

Åkerlind, G., McKenzie, J., & Lupton, M. (2014). The potential of combining phenomenography, variation theory and threshold concepts to inform curriculum design in higher education. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, 10, 227–247.

Alonso, C. M., Gallego, D. J., & Honey, P. (1997). Recursos e instrumentos psicopedagógicos. Los estilos de aprendizaje. Procedimientos de diagnóstico y mejora. Bilbao: Ediciones Mensajero.

Astin, A. (1968). The college environment. Washington D.C.: American Council on Education.

Barattucci, M. (2017). Approach to study as an indicator of the quality of teaching and of learning environment: the contribution of John Biggs. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 13(2), 77–88.

Barattucci, M., Pagliaro, S., Cafagna, D., & Bosetto, D. (2017). An examination of the applicability of Biggs’ 3P learning process model to Italian university. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 13(1), 163–180.

Barattucci, M., & Zuffo, R. G. (2012). Measuring learning environment perceptions: validation of the Italian version of the approaches to studying inventory and the student course experience questionnaire, TPM, 19(1), 15–33.

Barrie, S., Ginns P., & Prosser, M. (2005). Early impact and outcomes of an institutionally aligned, student focused learning perspective on teaching quality assurance. Assessment and evaluation in higher education, 30(6), 641–656.

Barros, D. M. V., García, C. A., & do Amaral, S. F. (2008). Estilo de uso do espaço virtual. Journal of Learning Styles, 1(1), 88–108.

Becker, H. S., Geer, B., & Hughes, E. (1968). Making the grade: The academic side of college life. New York: Wiley.

Beltrán Herrera, O., & Díaz Barriga, F. (2011). Enfoques de aprendizaje en el bachillerato de la UNAM. Revista Intercontinental de Psicología y Educación, 13(1), 114–132.

Bernstein, B. B. (1971). On the classification of and framing of educational knowledge. In M. F. D. Young (Ed.), Knowledge and control (pp. 47-69). London: Collier-Macmillan.

Biggs, J. B., (1999). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Bocciolesi, E. (2016). Profili riflessivi per l’alfabetizzazione universitaria. Il caso di studio messicano secondo gli obiettivi di Education 2030. Educational Reflective Practices, 1, 98–115.

Booth, S. (1997). On phenomenography, learning and teaching. Higher Education Research and Development, 16, 135–158.

Bowden, J., & Marton, F. (1998). The university of learning. London: Kogan Page.

Byrne, M., & Flood, B. (2003). Assessing the teaching quality of accounting programmes: An evaluation of the Course Experience Questionnaire. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 28, 135-145. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930301668

Clark, B. R., & Trow, M. (1966). The organizational context. In T. M. Newcomb & E. K. Wilson (Eds.), College peer groups: Problems and prospects for research (pp. 17–70). Chicago: Aldine.

Crawford, K., Gordon, S., Nicholas, J. & Prosser, M. (1998). Qualitatively different experiences of learning mathematics at university. Learning and Instruction, 8, 455–468.

Dahlgren, L. O., & Marton, F. (1978). Students’ conceptions of subject matter: An aspect of learning and teaching in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 3, 25–35.

Dahlin, B. (2007). Enriching the Theoretical Horizons of Phenomenography, Variation Theory and Learning Studies. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 51(4), 327–346.

Eley, M. G. (1992). Differential adoption of study approaches within individual students. Higher Education, 23, 231–254.

Ekeblad, E. (1997). On the surface of phenomenography: A response to Graham Webb. Higher Education, 33, 219–224.

Entwistle, N. J. (1997). Reconstituting approaches to learning: A response to Webb. Higher Education, 33, 213–218.

Entwistle, N. J., & McCune, V. (2004). The conceptual bases of study strategy inventories in Higher Education. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 325–346.

Entwistle, N. J., & Tait, H. (1990). Approaches to learning, evaluations of teaching, and preferences for contrasting academic environments. Higher Education, 19, 169–194.

Entwistle, N. J., & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding Student Learning. London: Croom Helm.

Espeland, V., & Indrehus, O. (2003). Evaluation of students’ satisfaction with nursing education in Norway. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42, 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02611.x

Gaff, J. G., Crombag H. F. M., & Chang T. M. (1976). Environments for learning in Dutch university. Higher education, 5, 285–299.

Gaff, J. G., & Wilson, R. C. (1971). Faculty cultures and interdisciplinary study. Journal of Higher education, 42(3), 186–201.

García, C. M. A., & Gallego, D. J. (2010). Los estilos de aprendizaje como competencias para el estudio, el trabajo y la vida. Journal of Learning Styles, 3(6), 4–22.

Garcia Berbén, G., & Belén, A. (2005). Estudio de los enfoques de aprendizaje en estudiantes de Magisterio y Psicopedagogía. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 3(6), 109-126.

Garcia Hoz, V., & Medina Rivilla, A. (1994). Ambiente, organización y diseño educativo. Madrid: Rialp.

Hartnett, R. T., & Centra, J. A. (1977). The effects of academic departments on student learning. Journal of Higher education, 48(5), 491–507.

Hermans, B. M. J. (1979). Student and system: Academic success and study problem in relation with characteristics of academic environment and of the students. In E. A. van Trotsenburg (Ed.), Higher education: A field of study (5 vols). Bern: Verlag Peter Lang.

Ho, A., Watkins, D., & Kelly, M. (2001). The conceptual change approach to improving teaching and learning: An evaluation of a Hong Kong staff development programme. Higher Education, 42, 143–169.

Howie, P., & Bagnall, R. (2013). A critique of the deep and surface approaches to learning model. Teaching in Higher Education, 18(4), 389–400.

Laurillard, D. (1979). The processes of student learning. Higher Education, 8, 395–409.

Lizzio, A., Wilson, K., & Simons, R. (2002). University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes. Studies in Higher Education, 27(1), 27–52.

Lo, M. L. (2012). Variation theory and the improvement of teaching and learning. Göteborg: Göteborgs Universitet, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

Lo, M. L., & Marton, F. (2012). Towards a science of the art of teaching: Using Variation Theory as a guiding principle of pedagogical design. International Journal of Lesson and Learning Studies, 1(1), 7–22.

Long, S. (1978). Student types and the evaluation of the university. Higher education, 6, 417–463.

Lugo J., Rodriguez Hernandez, G., & Luna Montijo, E. (2012). El cuestionario de estilos de aprendizaje CHAEA y la escala de estrategias de aprendizaje ACRA como herramienta potencial para la tutoría académica. Journal of Learning Styles, 5(10), 1–31.

Martin, E., Prosser, M., Trigwell, K., Ramsden, P., & Benjamin, J. (2000). What university teachers teach and how they teach it. Instructional Science, 28, 387–412.

Marton, F. (1988). Phenomenography: Exploring Different Conceptions of Reality. In P. Fetterman (Ed.), Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education: A Silent Revolution (pp. 176–205). New York: Praeger.

Marton, F. (1981). Phenomenography – describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science, 10, 177–200.

Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and awareness. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Marton, F., & Pong, W. Y. (2005). On the unit of description in phenomenography. Higher Education Research and Development, 24(4), 335–348.

Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1997). Approaches to learning. In F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N. Entwistle (Eds.), The Experience of Learning (pp. 39–58). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1976a). On qualitative differences in learning: I – Outcomes & process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, 4–11.

Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1976b). On qualitative differences in learning: II – Outcome as a function of the learner’s conception of the task. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, 115–127.

Muñoz, E., & Gómez, J. (2005). Enfoques de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico de los estudiantes universitarios. Revista de investigación educativa, 23(2), 417–432.

Ojeda, A. F. O., & Herrera, P. J. C. (2013). Estilos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en estudiantes de ingeniería en México. Journal of Learning Styles, 6(11), 160–177.

Pace, C. R. (1967). College and university environment scales. Princeton, N. J.: Educational Testing Service.

Pang, M. F. & Lo, M. L. (2011). Learning study: Helping teachers to use theory, develop professionally, and produce new knowledge to be shared. Instructional Science, 40(3), 589–606.

Pina, F. H., Sanz, M. P. G., & Sánchez, J. M. (2005). Análisis del cuestionario de procesos de estudio – 2 factores de Biggs en estudiantes universitarios españoles. Revista fuentes, 6.

Prosser, M. (2004). A student learning perspective on teaching and learning, with implications for problem-based learning. European Journal of Dental Education, 8, 51–58.

Prosser, M. (1994). A phenomenographic study of students’ intuitive and conceptual understanding of certain electrical phenomena. Instructional Science, 22, 189–205.

Prosser, M., Martin, E., Trigwell, K., Ramsden, P., & Lueckenhausen, G. (2005). Academics’ experiences of understanding of their subject matter and the relationship of this to their experiences of teaching and learning. Instructional Science, 33(2), 137–157.

Prosser, M., & Barrie, S. (2003). Using a student-focused learning perspective to strategically align academic development with institutional quality assurance. In R. Blackwell & P. Blackmore (Eds.), Towards strategic staff development in higher education (pp. 191-202). Buckingham: Open University Press.

Prosser, M., & Trigwell, K. (1999). Understanding Learning and Teaching. London: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.

Prosser, M., Trigwell, K., & Taylor, P. (1994). A phenomenographic study of academics’ conceptions of science learning and teaching. Learning and instruction, 4, 217–231.

Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in Higher education (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Ramsden, P. (1991). A performance indicator of teaching quality in higher education: The Course Experience Questionnaire. Studies in Higher Education, 16(2), 129–150.

Ramsden, P. (1979). Student learning and perceptions of the academic environment. Higher Education, 8, 411–427.

Ramsden, P., & Entwistle, N.J. (1981). Effects of academic departments on students’ approaches to studying. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 368–383.

Richardson, J. T. E. (2005a). Instruments for obtaining student feedback: A review of the literature. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30, 387–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930500099193.

Richardson, J. T. E. (2005b). Students’ approaches to learning and teachers’ approaches to teaching in higher education. Educational Psychology, 25, 673–680. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410500344720.

Richardson, J. T. E. (1999). The Concepts and Methods of Phenomenographic Research. Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 53–82.

Richardson, J. T. E. (1994). A British evaluation of the Course Experience Questionnaire. Studies in Higher Education, 19, 59–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079412331382143.

Rivilla, A. M., Concepción, M., Garrido, D., & Domínguez, M. M. (2016). Claves para la mejora de la docencia universitaria. Educación y Universidad ante el Horizonte 2020, 47, 47–72.

Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.

Rosário, P., González-Pienda, J. A., Cerezo, R., Pinto, R., Ferreira, P., Abilio, L., & Paiva, O. (2010). Eficacia del programa «(Des) venturas de Testas» para la promoción de un enfoque profundo de estudio. Psicothema, 22(4), 828–834.

Sin, S. (2010). Considerations of Quality in Phenomenographic Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 9(4), 305–319.

Stern, G. G. (1970). People in context. New York: Knopf.

Tight, M. (2016). Phenomenography: the development and application of an innovative research design in higher education research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 19(3), 319–338.

Tight, M. (2014). Discipline and theory in higher education research. Research Papers in Education, 29, 93–110.

Trigwell, K., Ashwin, P., & Millan, E. S. (2013). Evoked prior learning experience and approach to learning as predictors of academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 363–378.

Trigwell, K. (2012). Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. In L. Hunt & D. Chalmers (Eds.), University Teaching in Focus: A learning-centred approach (pp. 253–267). Camberwell, Victoria: Acer Press.

Trigwell, K. (2006). An analysis of the relations between learning and teaching approaches. In P. Sutherland & J. Crowther (Eds.), Lifelong learning: Concepts and contexts (pp. 108–116). London: Routledge.

Trigwell, K., & Prosser, M. (1991). Improving the quality of student learning: The influence of learning context and student approaches to learning on learning outcomes. Higher Education, 22, 251–266.

Webb, G. (1997). Deconstructing deep and surface: Towards a critique of phenomenography. Higher Education, 33(2), 195–212.

Wilson, K. L., Lizzio, A., & Ramsden, P. (1997). The development, validation and application of the Course Experience Questionnaire. Studies in Higher Education, 22, 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079712331381121.




DOI: 10.6092/issn.1825-8670/7900

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Massimiliano Barattucci, Enrico Bocciolesi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.